Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of gutkha

The MN frequency was scored to estimate the genotoxic damage. The lime calcium hydroxide used can result in an alkaline pH, triggering ROS release and causing irritation of the oral mucosa and hyperplasia [ 55 ].

In addition to paan and gutkha, other risk factors were found to be involved in the development of oral cancer, as shown in Table 2 [ 214243 ]. Hoffmann D, Harris CC, editors.

Gutkha is supposed to be responsible for a number of oral diseases and has addictive effects that leads to the addiction due to the presence of areca nut and tobacco. Taiwan Traditionally, tobacco has been consumed as part of the culture in some countries of the world.

So the effects of these drugs are not limited to just DNA damage. Human oral epithelium cells experience carcinogenic and genotoxic effects from the slaked lime present in the betel quid, with or without areca nut.

Arecanut as an emerging etiology of oral cancers in India

A study reported that women who chewed tobacco more than 10 times a day had a higher risk of oral cancer than non-tobacco chewers [ 21 ].

After 48 h colcemid 0. Pakistan After India, Pakistan is the second prominent country in which these smokeless tobacco products are consumed, with a prevalence among Pakistani men and women of In addition, oral cancer occurrence is especially high in Uttar Pradesh in north India due to the extraordinary rate of consumption of smokeless tobacco products, such as paan and gutkha [ 16 ].

Thereafter, cells were incubated for an additional 48 h. Only cells which were not fragmented and not overlapping were counted.

The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. These products have been associated with oral and pancreatic cancers, cardiovascular disease, periodontal disease, asthma, and deformities in the women reproductive system [ 1 ].

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Cordia ecalyculata Vell. Subsequently, in the Indian subcontinent, the consumption of areca nut mixtures in products such as paan and gutkha has led to an epidemic of OSMF in adolescents [ 99].

In particular, betel quid should be banned, as paan and gutkha are items containing betel quid. Tea drinkers having more than two cups of tea per day.

Micronucleus investigation in human buccal epithelial cells of gutkha users

Those who shown significant increase in micronucleated frequency in did not involve in any addiction. Any history of chronic systemic disease e. Malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. Cambodia In Cambodia, most users add tobacco to quid, and another practice is to rub it into the gum after chewing betel quid.

Among users, the youngest was of 12 years and the oldest one was of 65 years of age. According to the Indian Food Report, this concentration was 2. This suggests that gutkha and paan are not only carcinogenic for the oral cavity, but may also exert deleterious effects on other organs [ 93 ].

The incidence of mouth, tongue, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and lip cancer was found to be equal between men and women in Karachi, Pakistan [ 1624 - 26 ]. The number of micronucleated cells in the controls and cases were 4.

The different ingredients used in paan and gutkha have their own detrimental effects, such as catechu, which consists of tannin and polyphenols, which have a high tendency to cause esophageal cancer and are characterized by mutagenicity and clastogenicity [ 52 - 54 ].

It is produced in a chewable form and is also the main component of various products used daily by the younger population.

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The pH of the buffer 1 29 6 was adjusted to 7. Many epidemiological studies have been conducted in Taiwan, where betel leaves or betel inflorescence is used with areca nut. However, it is thought that the high occurrence of OSMF is due to its effect of enhancing addiction, leading to greater exposure to areca nut chewing.

Aim of the study In this study, it was verified the possible cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the crude extracts of.


Products such as 3- methylnitrosamino -proprionitrile, nitrosamines, and nicotine initiate the production of reactive oxygen species in smokeless tobacco, eventually leading to fibroblast, DNA, and RNA damage with carcinogenic effects in the mouth of tobacco consumers.

The use of these products is considered to be a normal cultural practice. In public health, banning such extensively used products is difficult and not ideal. Aim of the study. In this study, it was verified the possible cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the crude extracts of.

Cordia ecalyculata and Echinodorus grandiflorus, as well as their effectiveness in treating obesity. The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) ‘Gutkha’ becomes a major public health challenge due to its strong potentiality for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects.

Traditional plant based remedies in health care may be useful in this regard.

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Arecanut as an emerging etiology of oral cancers in India. AN is known to produce mutagenic and genotoxic effects on tissues of body which may lead to various neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions.

Arecaidine is more potent, cytotoxic, and mutagenic and is tumor promoter.

Value of Micronuclei Count as a Predictor of Cytotoxic Damage in Smoked and Smokeless Tobacco Users

The genotoxic effects of gutkha and pan masala are most likely due to the tobacco and areca nut specific nitrosamines. For the evaluation of the genotoxic effects of various compounds using the MN assay, Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of areca nut-related compounds. Clastogenic = A clastogen is an agent that can cause one of two types of structural changes.

A clastogen can cause breaks in chromosomes that result in the gain, loss, or rearrangements of chromosomal segments. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of a widely used herbicide, fluchloralin, were assessed using cultured mammalian cells.

been report on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the plant. This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic, mitodepressive and .

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of gutkha
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